Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

An understanding of the growth characteristics and sources of bacterial pathogens in foods is essential to conducting a hazard analysis of a food and subsequently controlling the identified hazards. 

The discussion will center on gram-negative rods and gram-positive rods and cocci. The pathogens within each group have some similarities in addition to their gram stain. For example, gram negative rods are nonspore formers and tend to have a fecal source. On the other hand, gram positive rods and cocci can be spore formers and are typically associated with environmental sources like soil and sediments.
Campylobacter jejuni infection, called Campylobacteriosis, causes diarrhea, which might be watery or sticky and might contain blood. Other symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, nausea, headache, and muscle pain.  Onset of illness occurs 2-5 days after eating contaminated food or water and lasts between 7 and 10 days, with a relapse in 25% of cases. While Campylobacter infections are self-limiting, antibiotics can further limit the amount of time that bacteria are shed in the feces of infected individuals.
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